"From Tobit to Bartimaeus, From Qumran to Siloam:
The Social Role of Blind People and Attitudes toward the Blind in New Testament Times"
Ph.D. Dissertation:  Yale University, 1997
Felix N. W. Just, S.J.



Judeo-Christian literature, scholarly journals, series, and biblical reference works are abbreviated as in the latest published version of the "Instructions for Contributors" of the Journal of Biblical Literature (JBL 107 [1988] 579-96; or http://www.sbl-site.org/Publications/PublishingWithSBL/JBL_Instructions.pdf).  Greco-Roman authors and works are abbreviated as in the Oxford Classical Dictionary (3rd ed.; Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

Additional Journals and References:
  • HCBD = HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (ed. Paul J. Achtemeier; San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1996)
  • JVIB = Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness (New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1977ff)
  • KMA = Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde (Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1863ff)
  • NOB = New Outlook for the Blind (New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1951-76)
  • Additional Publication Series:
  • CMG = Corpus Medicorum Graecorum (Berlin: Akademie Verlag)
  • CMGSupOr = Corpus Medicorum Graecorum: Supplementum Orientale (Berlin: Akademie Verlag)
  • SAM = Studies in Ancient Medicine (Leiden: E. J. Brill)
  • Electronic Resources Used:
  • Bibloi CD-ROM 4.0 and 5.0. Cedar Hill, TX: Silver Mountain Software, 1995-97.
  • PHI CD-ROM #5.3. Los Altos, CA: Packard Humanities Institute, 1991.
  • The Sage Digital Library. Vols. 1-4. Albany, OR: Sage Software, 1996.
  • Soncino Classics Edition CD-ROM. Chicago: Davka, 1996.
  • Thesaurus Linguae Graecae CD-ROM #D. Irvine, CA: University of California, 1992.
  • TLG Workplace, and PHI Workplace. Cedar Hill, TX: Silver Mountain Software, 1994-97.
  • Concordances and Lexica Cited: Boisacq, Émile. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque. 4th ed. Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1907.

    Brown, Francis, S. R. Driver and Charles A. Briggs. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1906; repr. 1951.

    Chantraine, Pierre. Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque: Histoire des mots. 4 vols. Paris: Klincksieck, 1968-80.

    Charlesworth, James H. Graphic Concordance to the Dead Sea Scrolls. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr; Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991.

    Dalman, Gustav. Aramäisch-Neuhebräisches Handwörterbuch zu Targum, Talmud, und Midrash. Göttingen: Pfeiffer, 1938.

    Denis, Albert-Marie. Concordance Grecque des Pseudépigraphes d'Ancien Testament. Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique, 1987.

    ________. Concordance Latine des Pseudépigraphes d'Ancien Testament. Brepols: Turnhout, 1993.

    Gesenius, Wilhelm. Thesaurus Linguae Hebraeae. Leipzig: F. C. G. Vogel, 1810-12; rev. ed. 1835-58.

    Glare, P. G. W., ed. Oxford Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968-82.

    Kasovsky, Chayim Y. Thesaurus Mishnae. 4 vols. Jerusalem: Massadah, 1956-60.

    ________. Thesaurus Thosephthae. 6 vols. Jerusalem: Magnes, 1932-61.

    Klein, Ernst. A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language for Readers of English. Jerusalem: Carta, 1987.

    Koehler, Ludwig H., and Walter Baumgartner. Lexicon in Veteris Testamentis Libros. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1953.

    Kuhn, Karl Georg. Konkordanz zu den Qumrantexten. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1960.

    ________."Nachträge zur 'Konkordanz zu den Qumrantexten.'" RevQ 4 (1963-64) 163-234.

    Lewis, Charlton Thomas, and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon, 1879; repr. 1962.

    Liddell, Henry George, Robert Scott, and Henry Stuart Jones. A Greek-English Lexicon, 9th ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1940.

    Mandelkern, Salomon. Veteris Testamenti Concordantiae Hebraicae atque Chaldaicae. Tel Aviv: Schocken, 1971.

    Marcus, David. A Manual of Akkadian. Washington: University Press of America, 1978.

    Spicq, Ceslas. Theological Lexicon of the New Testament. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1994.

    Tragelles, Samuel P., trans. Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979.

    Tucker, Thomas G. Etymological Dictionary of Latin. Chicago: Ares, 1985.

    Wharton, Edward R. Etymological Lexicon of Classical Greek: Etyma Graeca. London, 1882; repr. Chicago: Ares, 1974.

    Zodhiates, Spiros. The Complete Word Study Dictionary: New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 1993.

    Primary Sources Cited:

    Note: The LCL (Loeb Classical Library) editions listed below are all currently published and/or reprinted by Harvard University Press in Cambridge, MA, although the initial publication may have been in London (Heinemann) and/or New York (Putnam). The years given below are the years of initial publication or latest revision, taking no account of subsequent unaltered reprints.

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    Baumgarten, Joseph M., ed. Qumran Cave 4:XIII. The Damascus Document [4Q266-273]. DJD 18. Oxford, Clarendon, 1996.

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    ________. "Light on a Dark Subject and Vice Versa: Magic and Magicians in the New Testament." Religion, Science, and Magic, ed. J. Neusner, et al., 142-65. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

    ________. "'Lest the Light in You be Darkness': Luke 11:33-36 and the Question of Commitment." JBL 110 (1991) 93-105.

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    ________. "Mark VIII.22-26: The Blind Man from Bethsaida." NTS 25 (1979) 370-83.

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    Kahl, Werner. New Testament Miracle Stories in Their Religious-Historical Setting. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1994.

    Karasch, Mary C. "Ophthalmia (Conjunctivitis and Trachoma)." The Cambridge World History of Human Disease, ed. K. E. Kiple, 897-906. Cambridge: University Press, 1993.

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    ________. Medicine, Miracle and Magic in New Testament Times. SNTSMS 55. Cambridge: University Press, 1986.

    Keller, Helen. The Story of My Life. New York: Macmillan, 1964.

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    Kerényi, Karl. Asklepios: Archetypal Image of the Physician's Existence. Trans. by Ralph Manheim. New York: Pantheon, 1959.

    Kirchschläger, Walter. "Bartimäus - Paradigma einer Wundererzählung (Mk 10,46-52 par)." The Four Gospels, ed. F. Van Segbroeck, et al., 2.1105-23. Leuven: University Press, 1992.

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    ________. "Hygiene and Healing among the Jews in the Post-Biblical Period: A Partial Reconstruction." ANRW II, 37.3 (1996) 2843-65.

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    Levy, W. Hanks. Blindness and the Blind: or, A Treatise on the Science of Typhlology. London: Chapman & Hall, 1872.

    Lieu, Judith M. "Blindness in the Johannine Tradition." NTS 34 (1988) 83-95.

    Lowenfeld, Berthold. "The Social Impact of Blindness Upon the Individual." NOB 58 (1964) 273-77.

    ________. The Changing Status of the Blind: From Separation to Integration. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1975.

    ________. "What is Blindness?" Berthold Lowenfeld on Blindness and Blind People: Selected Papers, intro. by Philip H. Hatlen, 221-30. New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1981.

    Lukoff, Irving, et al. Attitudes Toward Blind Persons. New York: American Foundation for the Blind, 1972.

    Mäder, H. "Die römische Augenheilkunde um die Zeitenwende nach den Darstellungen des Celsus." Das Altertum 12 (1966) 103ff.

    Magnus, Hugo. Die antiken Büsten des Homer: Eine Augenärztliche ästhetische Studie. Breslau: Kern, 1896.

    ________. Die Augenheilkunde der Alten. Breslau: Kern, 1901.

    Maier, Johann. The Temple Scroll: An Introduction, translation & Commentary. JSOTSup 34. Trans. by R. White. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1985.

    Manchester, Paul T. and P. Thomas Manchester. "The Blindness of Saint Paul." Archives of Ophthalmology 88 (1972) 316-21.

    Manns, Frédéric. "Racines juives et nouveauté chrétienne en Jean 9." L'Évangile de Jean à lumière du Judaïsme, 185-216. Studium Biblicum Franciscanum 33. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1991.

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    Marganne, Marie-Hélène. Inventaire Analytique des Papyrus Grecs de Médecine. Geneva: Droz, 1981.

    ________. L'ophthalmologie dans l'Égypte gréco-romaine d'après les papyrus littéraires grecs. SAM 8. Leiden/New York: E. J. Brill, 1994.

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    McCready, Wayne O. "Johannine Self-Understanding and the Synagogue Episode of John 9: Significance of the birkat ha-minim." Self-Definition and Self-Discovery, ed. D. Hawkin, 147-66. Lewiston, NY: E. Mellen, 1990.

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    ________, ed. The HarperCollins Study Bible. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.

    Mees, Michael. "Die Heilung des Kranken vom Bethesdateich aus Joh 5.1-18 in Frühchristlicher Sicht." NTS 32 (1986) 596-608.

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    Milgrom, Jacob. "Studies in the Temple Scroll." JBL 97 (1978) 501-23.

    ________. "Further Studies in the Temple Scroll." JQR 71 (1980-81) 1-17, 89-106.

    ________. "The Scriptural Foundations and Deviations in the Laws of Purity of the Temple Scroll." Archaeology and History in the Dead Sea Scrolls: The New York University Conference in Memory of Yigael Yadin, ed. L. Schiffman, 83-99. JSPSup 8. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990.

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    ________. Tobit. AB 40A. New York: Doubleday, 1996.

    Morenz, Siegfried. "Vespasian, Heiland der Kranken: Persönliche Frömmigkeit im antiken Herrscherkult?" Religion und Geschichte des alten Ägypten, 551-60. Cologne/Vienna: Böhlau, 1975.

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    Müller, David Heinrich. Die Gesetze Hammurabis und ihr Verhältnis zur mosaischen Gesetzgebung sowie zu den XII Tafeln. Vienna: A. Hölder, 1903

    Müller, Hans Wolfgang. Eine ungewöhnliche Metallfigur eines blinden ägyptischen Priesters. Munich: Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1989.

    Müller, Karlheinz. "Joh 9,7 und das jüdische Verständnis des Siloh-Spruches." BZ 13 (1969) 251-56.

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    Neyrey, Jerome H. "Clean/Unclean, Pure/Polluted, and Holy/Profane: The Idea and System of Purity." The Social Sciences and New Testament Interpretation, ed. Richard Rohrbaugh, 80-104. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.

    Nickelsburg. George W. E. "Tobit," HBC (1988) 791-803.

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    ________. "Galen and Egypt." Galen und das Ellenistische Erbe. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1993.

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    ________. "John 9 and the Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel." JSNT 28 (1986) 31-61.

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    Perkins, Pheme. "The Gospel according to John." NJBC 942-51.

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    ________. "Sickness and Healing in Luke-Acts." The Social World of Luke-Acts, ed. J. Neyrey, 181-209. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1991.

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    ________. "Joh 9 - Tradition und zeitgenössische messianische Diskussion." BZ 22 (1978) 245-53.

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    Rosner, Fred. Medicine in Bible and Talmud: Selections from Classical Jewish Sources. New York: Ktav, 1977.

    ________, trans. Julius Preuss' Biblical and Talmudic Medicine. New York: Sanhedrin, 1978.

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    Scarborough, John. Roman Medicine. London: Thames & Hudson, 1969.

    Schiffman, Lawrence H. "Exclusion from the Sanctuary and the City of the Sanctuary in the Temple Scroll." Hebrew Annual Review 9 (1985) 301-20.

    ________. "Purity and Perfection: Exclusion from the Council of the Community in the Serekh Ha-Edah." Biblical Archaeology Today: Proceedings of the International Congress on Biblical Archaeology - Jerusalem, April 1984, ed. L. Schiffman, 373-89. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1985.

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    ________. "Origin and Early History of the Qumran Sect." BA 58 (1995) 37-48.

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    ________. "Mechenti-irti, der altägyptische Gott der Blinden und Augenkranken von Letopolis." KMA 138 (1961) 416-18.

    ________. "Zwei altägyptische Blindenberufe." KMA 139 (1961) 82-83.

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    Schrage, Wolfgang. "tuflo/j, tuflo/w." TWNT 8.270-94; also TDNT 8.270-94.

    Schwankl, Otto. "Die Metaphorik von Licht und Finsternis im johanneischen Schrifttum." Metaphorik und Mythos im Neuen Testament, ed. K. Kertelge, 135-67. Freiburg/Basel/Wien: Herder, 1990.

    Shaw, John A. "Visually Handicapped or Blind?" New Beacon 59, no. 694 (Feb. 1975) 35-37.

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    Speyer, Wolfgang. "Die Geschichte vom Blinden und Lahmen." Frühes Christentum im antiken Strahlungsfeld: Ausgewählte Aufsätze, 264-68. Tübingen: Mohr/Siebeck, 1989.

    Staley, Jeffrey L. "Stumbling in the Dark, Reaching for the Light: Reading Characters in John 5 and 9." Semeia 53 (1991) 55-80.

    Starke, Herbert. "Augenärztliches auf Briefmarken." KMA 127 (1955) 754-61; 132 (1958) 740-44; 144 (1964) 751-56.

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