Rulers in Israel during the Roman Era
by Felix Just, S.J., Ph.D.

Note: The hyperlinked names are mentioned in the New Testament; see the explicit references below the chart. 
Dates refer to when these men ruled, not to their entire lifespan. Some dates are not certain, but only approximate.

Roman Emperors Jewish Rulers & Roman Prefects
over Judea & Samaria
Jewish Rulers over
Galilee & Northern Territories

[Julius Caesar assassinated 44 BC]

Octavian / Augustus (27 BC--AD 14)

Tiberius (AD 14-37)

[General Pompey enters Jerusalem; Roman domination of Palestine begins - 63 BC]

King Herod the Great, King over all Israel (37-4 BC)

Herod Archelaus, "Ethnarch" of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea (4 BC-AD 6)
Herod Antipas, "Tetrarch" of Galilee and Perea (4 BC-AD 39)

Herod Philip, "Tetrarch" of Northeastern Regions (4 BC-AD 34; over Iturea, Trachonitus, Gaulanitis, Auranitis, and Batanea)
Coponius (AD 6-10)
Marcus Ambivulus (10-13)
Annius Rufus (13-15)
Valerius Gratus (15-26)

Pontius Pilate (26-36)
Gaius / Caligula (37-41)
Claudius (41-54)

Nero (54-68)

Galba, Otho, & Vitellius (68-69)
Vespasian (69-79)

Titus (79-81)
Domitian (81-96)

Nerva (96-98)
Trajan (98-117)
Marcellus (36-38)
Marullus (38-41)
[41-44 AD: under Herod Agrippa I]
Cuspius Fadus (44-46)
Tiberius Alexander (46-48)
Ventidius Cumanus (48-52)
M. Antonius Felix (52-59)

Porcius Festus (59-61)
Albinus (61-65)
Gennius Florus (65-70)
Vettulenes Cerialis (70-72)
Lucilius Bassus (72-75)
M. Salvienus (75-86)
Pompeius Longinus (86)

Herod Agrippa I  (37-44; by AD 41, King over all Palestine)

Herod Agrippa II (48-70, Tetrarch of Chalcis and the Northern Territories)

[For more detailed charts of the Herodian Dynasty and related materials, see Roman Rulers by Prof. Mahlon Smith and Herod's Family Tree by Rodney Baird.]
[For the period preceding the Roman rule of Palestine, see my Hellenistic and Maccabean Era page.]

Roman Emperors mentioned in the New Testament:

Roman Prefects (Procurators/Governors) of Judea mentioned in the New Testament:

Other Roman Rulers and Soldiers named in the New Testament:

Herodian Rulers and Relatives mentioned in the New Testament:

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This page was last updated on September 24, 2005
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